Usefulness of presepsin in predicting the prognosis of patients with sepsis or septic shock: a retrospective cohort study

Background: The diagnosis and prediction of prognosis are important in patients with sepsis, and presepsin is helpful. In this study, we aimed to examine the usefulness of presepsin in predicting the prognosis of sepsis in Korea.
Methods: Patients diagnosed with sepsis according to the sepsis-3 criteria were recruited into the study and classified into surviving and non-surviving groups based on in-hospital mortality. A total of 153 patients (32 and 121 patients with sepsis and septic shock, respectively) were in- cluded from July 2019 to August 2020.
Results: Among the 153 patients with sepsis, 91 and 62 were in the survivor and non-survivor groups, respectively. Presepsin (p =0.004) and lactate (p =0.003) levels and the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score (p <0.001) were higher in the non-survivor group. Receiver op- erating characteristic curve analysis revealed poor performances of presepsin and lactate in predicting the prognosis of sepsis (presepsin: area under the curve [AUC] =0.656, p =0.001; lac- tate: AUC=0.646, p=0.003). The SOFA score showed the best performance, with the highest AUC value (AUC=0.751, p<0.001). The prognostic cutoff point for presepsin was 1,176 pg/mL. Presepsin levels higher than 1,176 pg/mL (odds ratio [OR], 3.352; p <0.001), higher lactate levels (OR, 1.203; p =0.003), and higher SOFA score (OR, 1.249; p <0.001) were risk factors for in-hos- pital mortality.
Conclusion: Presepsin levels were higher in non-survivors than in survivors. Thus, presepsin may be a valuable biomarker in predicting the prognosis of sepsis.