Serum biomarkers in the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection: consolidated evidence and recent developments

Abstract. Periprosthetic Joint Infection (PJI) represents one of the leading causes of revision prosthetic surgery, accounting for 25% of failed Total Knee Replacement (TKR) and 15% of failed Total Hip Replacement (THR). The search for a biomarker that, together with clinical and radiological findings, could improve the management of such a kind of patients is currently a big challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. This review aims (1) to assess the accuracy and the limitations of the traditional (Serum Erythrocytes Sedimentation Rate, C-reactive Protein, Procalcitonin, Interleukin 6, Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha), (2) and to analyse the emerging serum biomarkers (Presepsin, Tolllike Receptor 2, soluble urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator Receptor, Chemokine Ligand 2 and Osteopontin) in the diagnosis of PJI.
A special attention will be given to the emerging serum biomarkers, that could play an important role as first-line investigations, in the screening of PJI in a close future.